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The Challenge of Contemporary Child Sexual Exploitation ...

Special Reports

The Challenge of Contemporary Child Sexual Exploitation and Internal Child Sex Trafficking Some Lessons from Rochdale, Rotherham and Richmond

The recent discovery of a 1,400-victim sex abuse ring in the UK has rocked the country. That it’s the fifth of its kind in the last half decade - led by Muslim men - has meant that the attention of many reading the national press and listening to the unfolding collapse of careers of those holding positions of power during the noughties when most of the ‘historic’ and more present offences occurred, has swung onto a new alignment of attention focussed on Muslim heritage males and the risk of abuse on white girls and vulnerable women in localities where Pakistani, Somali and Bangladeshi males are populous.

The online world has been awash with commentaries on the risks of ‘certain cultures’ to manifesting grooming gang activities with a concentration on racial difference, as a trope of vulnerability, poor parental attention and racial power play.

This brief article will seek to put this current focus into its appropriate context – with particular attention paid to

? What we know about particular offending groups and their ethnicity

? What is currently known about the children who are targeted for abuse and their ethnicities

? The National Action Plan emerging from Central Government

? Lessons from Rotherham

? Grooming techniques and ‘Risky’ areas

? The range of legislation available to prosecute offences around Child Sexual Exploitation

? Training inputs available for Local Councils and front line services

? The importance of a central joined up LSCB plan – and multi agency working

? The risks attached to doing nothing (victims and litigation)

The Perpetrators and their Clients

In a recent report from Deputy Children’s commissioner (DCC) there is this following sad commentary on the state of various violence delivered on children in our society.

There is sadly no community where women and girls are not at risk from men and sexual predators. In the period between 2011 - 2013, the Chief Crown Prosecutor recently reported to the DCC

‘We have prosecuted people, invariably men, from 25 countries. We have to deal here with the United Nations of abusers (ed it) of women and girls. It needs to be clear, however, that white British men constitute the vast majority of offenders in the United Kingdom.

The perpetrators in these so-called group-grooming cases do not limit their criminal behaviour to white girls, though most were.

We know that women and victims from minorities are even more reluctant to report these crimes, in part because of honour and shame issues. That is why this research is so important. It is the availability of victims coupled with their vulnerability that leads to them being targeted by these predators.

Nazir Afzal OBE the Chief Crown Prosecutor of the Crown Prosecution Service for North West England

Currently the attention of the UK Human Trafficking Centre and the National Crime Agency in which it is now embedded, is firmly victim centred and data protocols have been set up which collects the ethnicity of children and adults at risk of having been trafficked. However the ethnicity of those involved as traffickers of those in Internal Child Sexual Trafficking cases, or cases which have been subsequently placed in other ‘more achievable prosecutions’ is not publically available. This data where it is available is distributed across offences ranging from Rape, Child Abuse, a variety of offences captured in Paedophilia cases, and a number of offences captured in counter trafficking legislation and section 58 of the Sexual Offences Act (SOA 2003), as amended by section 59A (1)(b).

Furthermore, to complicate matters further there are always complex prosecutions which are ongoing, alongside cases which are distributed across a number of crime reporting categories, which mean that a clear understanding for the government bodies charged with monitoring what is occurring, the police forces which are seeking to interdict and disrupt grooming rings, and the general public at large who use this information to make judgements about their safety and the risk posed by certain ethnicities within the wider UK community, is very patchy. It is increasingly understood that although it is vitally important that a deep understanding of ages, ethnicity and range of crimes against victims is recorded properly in order to maximise the efficacy of victim care and inform longer term recovery – that the profile of perpetrators which must include their age and ethnicity is currently insufficiently attended to in the publicly available data, thus holding up a skewed mirror for society to understand what is going on.

Even with the opportunities for data management emerging through the centralised National Referral Mechanism, managed through the National Crime Agency, the ethnicity of traffickers involved in Internal Trafficking in the UK for child sexual exploitation – lacks ethnic clarity around the participants in the offence, either as facilitators, traffickers or clients. This is something where there needs to be some urgent activity. However what can so far be safely assumed across the categories of rape, paedophilic rings and child abuse, and is corroborated in the general data available from a range of the data sets which are available however patchy, white British males currently predominate across all categories of these offences. But this does need to be constantly monitored so that the crime groups can be better understood, interruption of these forms of abuse appropriately addressed and prosecuted, and culturally aligned messages be sent into the appropriate institutions, educational fora, businesses (taxi providers for one!) and faith communities that these behaviours are no longer – if they ever were – acceptable and will be prosecuted.

All cultures at risk of predatorial male behaviours

It is now being absorbed across local councils and central government, that sex abuse and child abuse is a problem which affects all cultures within the rainbow of populations in the UK. In 2011-12, just under 69% of rape crime defendants were categorised as White, of which 63% were identified as belonging to the White British category (three percent higher than the previous year). 7% of defendants were identified as Asian – a fall of 1 percent from 2010-11, and a further 10% were identified as Black – a fall of 3 percent from the previous year. This does raise challenges as to how the range of diasporic, second and third generation communities are engaged with to rally all members of the community to resist such behaviours, report brothers, fathers, cousins, uncles, friends and business colleagues who are involved in such activities, and to work out culturally appropriate methods to build better counter abuse resilience into those communities which have until the last decade been falling under the radar of attention. However this is a task for the whole of the United Kingdom and certainly not a ‘particular’ or isolated issue for non ‘indigenous’ communities.

The Need for new Consolidated Data

What will be helpful going forward is a consolidation of data under the aegis of the Children’s Commissioner and a new National Group which has been formed within the Ministry of Justice with a remit across England and Wales to see the Government urgently address what the report alludes to as ‘missed opportunities’ to protect vulnerable children. This group is led by the Minister for Policing, Criminal Justice representatives, and those representing victims groups and interests within the UK.

The National Group has three key aims

? improve cross-Government delivery,

? identify problems and solutions,

? act swiftly to resolve them.

The group has identified nine key areas for action:

? prevention

? online

? policing

? criminal justice system

? culture change

? supporting victims

? offenders

? institutions

? local implementation

“To label this as Pakistani problem is dangerous,” Umar Farooq from Bradford spoke out recently however she wanted attention paid to her community as “I don't think it's a coincidence that the men in these gangs (in Rotherham) come from Pakistani backgrounds. It is all a result of segregated communities where illiteracy is rife and the men think they can get away with anything. Seeing white girls as targets of abuse is a cultural issue, and these criminals believe there is nothing wrong with it.” 1

The racial and gender diversity of the abused

One of the tropes which has become established in the recent spate of reporting of grooming, rape, pimping, child abuse and internal child sex trafficking cases emerging from Rochdale, Rotherham and Bradford over the last 3 years is of the cross ethnic nature of abuse. Pakistani and Asian men, are portrayed as recruiting white girls for sex, rather than the wider background, which is men of all ethnicities abusing children (boys as well as girls) in their own communities – as intracommunity abuse is far more widespread than any like to imagine.

One of the challenges for the researcher into these areas, is that although recording of victim ethnicity has slightly improved over the last few years, just under 70% of victim ethnicity is still not recorded according to the CPS and resulting in significant data on this not included in their annual report of 2012.

Attention, since the publication of the Children’s Commissioners’ report of 2014, has fallen on Rotherham, but this must not divert us from peeling back the complexity of what is occurring across the UK today. Training needs to be appropriately absorbed and realised in a programme of common action across the protective and judicial services in order that thousands more UK born children, and those who have been trafficked into the country, are not put at further risk of this form of horrendous at times chaotic yet so frequently male defined, organised abuse.

In the absence of a strong presence of communication lines into the Asian and Muslim communities, academics are emerging ready to postulate about the dialectic of abuse which is happening across racial and faith divides.

Roger Griffin, a Professor of Modern History at Oxford Brookes University and specialist in extreme right-wing ideologue, has suggested without a great deal of engagement with Muslim women’s networks exploring the challenge of ‘under reporting, that “a woman of a different ethnicity can make the sense of crime seem less severe. These are the acts of men who are sexual predators, who do not feel like they can go and carry out their lust in their own communities. They see that white girls do not behave in a ‘modest’ way, and take advantage of these ‘lost women’2 But is this really the whole story?

Many other cities in the UK with similar diasporic and inter-racial profile as Rotherham are now starting to look afresh at how all communities are being incorporated into the cultures of equality, diversity, inclusion and respect, particularly addressing the impact of gender and the rights of the child. The UK now has a significant armoury of legislation which asserts Equalities and Human Rights which is filtering through into Education providers, Social Services, Public Health providers, and the protective services. However there is still some significant space between what is in place in legislation and what is happening on the streets and behind the closed doors of shops, taxis, and households. Furthermore the aspect of significant ‘under-reporting of abuse suffered by children and women within Asian and Muslim communities needs to be particularly addressed.

Concerns from the Muslim Women UK network

IN 2013 a report emerged the Muslim Women UK network which was inspired by a concern that the current reporting provisions which could be accessed more easily by white victims of Child Sexual Abuse and their parents, was masking the incidence of Child Sexual Abuse and Internal Child Sexual Trafficking occurrences in the Asian and Muslim communities in the UK.3

Their point of departure was that many girls and women, (as well as boys and men) from all backgrounds were being caught in a cycle of sexual violence whether by celebrities, gangs of street groomers, or paedophiles, and that this abuse comes in many forms and affects many different types of people. This means that certain types of abuse are routinely underreported, misunderstood or indeed overlooked by the mandated authorities. Baroness Sayeedi Warsi clarified the challenge raised in this report, where over 33 Asian victims of child sexual abuse were interviewed, and their case histories explored.

When I was campaigning for forced marriage to be criminalised, I said it was an inverse form of racism when teachers, neighbours and others would all too easily ignore the fact that an Asian schoolgirl had suddenly disappeared from class and ‘gone home’ or ‘gone to stay with relatives.’

Their response to a white classmate disappearing, I argued, would have been very different. All communities deserve the same rights and protections in this country, no one more so than children. It’s the same with child abuse and exploitation: we mustn’t be allowed to ignore one type of abuse or one type of victim, just because their plight is better hidden, or their community is less well understood. 4

These early day signals from the Muslim women network confirm the following challenges in local safe guarding boards and their multi agency partners to pay particular attention to:

• The communities which are closest to the perpetrators and therefore most easily accessible – and at risk of abuse

• The function of honour codes which means that reporting by a child to a parent, or a parent to the authorities of abuse, grooming or sexual assault is fraught with problems and rarely occurs

• The absence of easy ways to reach into Muslim and Asian communities and the current paucity of third party agencies and LSGB members working closely with Muslim women’s networks to lift the veil on abuses which are occurring, to provide a safe, trained and supportive locus of reporting within diverse communities

• The requirement of the public services to put adequate funding into proper inclusion of diversity, even in a time of national funding cuts

• Clear messages into every faith and ethnic sector of the community that abuse of children and violence against women ‘will not be tolerated and has no place to hide’

Lessons from Rotherham Multi Agency integrated Model

A review of the Rotherham Child Safety performance in 2012 noted the following

3.30 While supporting the move towards an integrated model of services, the Review thought that the Borough could do more. Staff should be fully trained to understand the model’s implications; procedures should be directed towards its effective application; the relationship between central services and locality teams was confused and should be clarified.

3.31 The Review expressed concern that children’s social care in Rotherham was inadequately funded, not least its high-risk services. The very high rate of referrals reflected the social conditions in many parts of the Borough, the chronic neglect, the poor standards of child care, the level of domestic violence and drug abuse, all of which had a direct impact on the welfare and safety of children.

• Inadequate joint working,

• Inadequate training,

• Requirements for effective application of a ‘good basic model’

• Inadequately funded central services in areas of high risk.

Child Sexual Exploitation or Internal Child Sexual Trafficking?

There has been extensive and widespread debate about which category most effectively protects children from sexual exploitation in the UK - and which category offences should be prosecuted under. CSE and ICST vie with one another with proponents being assembled from a variety of NGOs at local and national levels, Local Child Safety Boards, Constabularies, Academics, Child Exploitation and Online Protection, and the UK Human Trafficking Centre advisors now embedded in the National Crime Agency.

Internal Child Sexual Trafficking

The most universally accepted definition of human trafficking was announced by the United Nations Protocol in 2000 and opened for signature in Palermo in 2002, which defined human trafficking as …the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation (United Nations, 2000)

The Palermo Protocol identifies an important difference between adult and child trafficking whereby force or coercion is not required for a child to be considered as a victim of trafficking. Even though the minor may have given verbal consent, under UK law anyone under 18 years is viewed as unable to consent to trafficking. Under Section 58 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 it is illegal to arrange or facilitate the movement of someone within the UK with the intent to exploit them sexually. This offence, internal sex trafficking, carries a maximum custodial sentence of 14 years (SGC, 2007). Internal Child Sex Trafficking or ICST - is a subset of ICT which involves UK children (aged under 18 years). Internationally trafficked children who are subsequently trafficked internally since their exploitation for the purpose of this article sit within a different frame, but could be theoretically captured in ICST if subsequent to their trafficking they are granted British citizenship.

This crime of ICST has been increasingly recognised as a structure to inform the investigation, protection of victims and prosecution of criminals facilitating and benefitting from this form of abuse since the mid noughties with a number of police operations mounted and prosecutions successfully brought but not always under the structure of ICST.

Child Sexual Exploitation 

The nationally agreed ACPO definition of CSE is:

• Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where the young person (or third person/s) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or others performing on them, sexual activities.

• Child sexual exploitation can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post images on the internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain.

Operation Glover

In 2006 Sheffield Local Authority Sexual Exploitation Service (SLASES) identified a pattern of local white girls who were regularly going missing from home. After the UK Human Trafficking Centre launched Operation Glover to analyse the information provided by SLASES they identified 33 UK born teenage girls aged between 12 and 15 who had been victimised. Following Operation Glover charges brought against perpetrators included child abduction, and in the case of one male, imprisonment based on 4 counts of sex with a minor involving vaginal and anal rape. Other serious assault and drug related charges were upheld, and subsequently five men were made the subject of deportation procedures. ICTS is a recent nomenclature to describe a criminal set of behaviours which have only recently emerged the radar for Police, and reshaped understanding of who is the perpetrator, who is the victim, and how the crime is to be unearthed and charged, and the victims supported through the long journey of securing a prosecution and onward recovery.

Unpacking and understanding its prevalence requires complex networks of reporting and observation, and a level of resourced curiosity on the part of front line policing, joining up with other public to really understand what they are seeing as internal sex trafficking.

In 2006 an NGO based in Leeds and looking atsome of social impacts of the ethnic diversity of the Northern mining towns, the Coalition for the Removal of Pimping (CROP) began to report on an emerging challenge of recruitment of children by older ‘boyfriends’ from the Pakistani community. In a paper called - Trafficking in our midst: Parallels between international trafficking, CROP pointed out the incidence of internal trafficking emerging in Northern towns where they had been contacted by distraught parents not knowing how to protect their daughters.5 The parents were from all classes, and many of them would not be constituted as chaotic or dysfunctional families – but all had been disrupted by this phenomenon – and all had found the response of the mainstream services to assist them in rescuing their daughters from abusive grooming rings less than adequate.

“We talk of international trafficking. We are not saying we should not do anything about that. But look here, they are passing these children from gang to gang just like they are doing with girls brought from abroad. Girls are not seeing money changing hands. That’s what is happening”. 6

- Parent speaking to CROP worker 2006

Awareness amongst many front line services of ICST has been profoundly low and only in the light of recent media highlighted abuses in Rotherham, Rochdale and Bradford have the instances and possibilities of ICST been started to be apprehended by front line service providers, educationalists, social services, public health providers and police. ICST often overlaps with better-understood offences (rape, child pornography, false imprisonment, etc.) and because of this, the crime reporting or the way in which the CPS has decided to take the prosecution forward has sometimes been under different legislation in order to secure conviction by a jury. Not only has the crime emerged lately on the radar for Police, understanding and unpacking its prevalence requires complex networks of reporting and observation, and frequently curiosity on the part of front line policing to really understand what they are seeing as internal sex trafficking.

Creating a common language

There has been over the last 6 years some contention that the terms ‘internal trafficking’ or ‘trafficking within the UK for sexual exploitation’ could be used interchangeably, or in some cases in exchange to describe the more complex activities involved in ‘child sexual exploitation’. By narrowing a definition to reflect a single phenomenon, i.e. in the case of ‘internal trafficking’, the ‘movement’ factor, could act to further obscure the more generic and diverse nature of child sexual exploitation activity.

The national child protection organisation Barnados, pioneered the request for a ‘common language’, to be developed in order to inform information gathering and sharing protocols across agencies. Barnardo’s suggested a set of criteria which would provide an effective means of supporting police, and other safeguarding partners in best practice processes of intelligence gathering, investigation, disruption, prosecution of perpetrators and the support of victims. While combining key elements of the Trafficking defining protocol ‘Palermo Protocol’, and the Sexual Offences Act 2003 Barnardo’s suggested that the following ‘definition tool’ could be usefully deployed to identify children who had been trafficked within the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Common Language definition for ICST and CSE

‘The transportation, or the intent to transport (including the recruitment, transfer, harbouring or receipt of) a child under age of 18 within the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation, or the committing of an offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, taking into account the following:

i. The intention to commit a sexual offence or, in handing over a child to a third party, the belief that the third party is likely to do so, is sufficient without the sexual offence actually taking place;

ii. The consent of the child is irrelevant; this activity is often characterised by deceit, coercion, violence and

iii. In all cases the trafficker will have power over the child by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources’

iv. Evidence of transportation to other locations /travel beyond the child’s’ local area of residence; or

v. Evidence of the intention to transport; and

vi. The involvement of a third party, or more; or

vii. Evidence of informal networks; or Links to criminal networks’

viii. Further indicators may include going missing and not returning (in the case of children arriving from abroad); or

ix. Going missing for periods of time, and returning, possibly on a regular basis’7

Recruitment indicators

The recruitment of victims experienced by those identified by CROP ( parents and researchers followed elaborate stages of the previously observed grooming process of minors into CSE which traditionally had been linked to ‘Child Prostitution’.

• ‘Boyfriends’ style perpetrators were seen to target and approach victims in known areas where young people congregate;

o bus stations,

o car parks,

o shopping centres,

o gaming machine venues

o fast food outlets and

o taxi ranks

• Techniques

o the use of flattery, gifts and other forms of coercion,-

o the recruited girls could be used to use stolen bank cards to buy themselves gifts, or collect money for their recruiters

o later the stolen provenance of the card would be revealed and the threat of criminal action by the police would be operationalized.

o ‘grown up’ privileges would be shared – drink, freedom with school hours, use of a car, access to clubs brought into play in a way denied them at home and school,

o the perception of a powerful sponsoring friendship is instilled

o a sexual relationship is precipitated, frequently one on one but also gang rapes can occur at this stage

o coercion and manipulation through drug use, alcohol abuse, enticement to go missing from home for short periods, and subsequent encouragement of family estrangement and bonding with their new perpetrator network is encouraged

o (note that ‘girlfriends’ can also be present in the ‘recruiting frame’ which is a point frequently overlooked, the loss of important protection time and intervention occurs because of this gendered oversight)8

After this important piece of work by CROP which has also had significant inputs from the NSPCC, CHILDLINE and Barnardo’s, more advice has emerged over the intervening years from the Child Exploitation and Online Protection and the National Child Commissioner.

CEOP observed commonalities among offenders: "Many of the detailed cases submitted to CEOP showed that grooming is used to manipulate victims, distance them from families and friends, and place them under the control of the offender. Offenders will often use flattery and attention to persuade victims to view them as a ‘boyfriend’." –we also now know female peer recruiters are clearly at work in this chain, as well a peer group boyfriends – which can complicate what is actually happening in the chain of exploitation. 9

Amongst the warning signs which CEOP have amalgamated as indicative of children at risk of recruitment into abusive relationships – or networks of abuse are any of the following which frequently alert those observing changes in behaviour of wider indices of abuse.

Warning signs to consider:

• Having an older boyfriend/girlfriend

• Peer group bullying

• Having unaccounted for money or items

• Signs of underage sex such as sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy

• Disclosure of serious sexual assault and then withdrawing the allegation

• Regularly coming home late

• Going missing from school, home or care home

• Not attending school or being excluded

• Being taken to nightclubs and hotels by adults

• Being friendly with adults or suddenly changing peer groups

• Chatting to or exchanging pictures with strangers online

• Experimenting with drugs and or alcohol

• Changes in behaviour that are out of character

• Hostility in relationships with family members or other carers

• Secrecy

• Repeat offending

• Being a gang member or associating with gangs

• Illness that cannot be explained

• Poor self image, eating disorders, self harm.

Peer on Peer recruitment and abuse

Work undertaken by the advocacy and research network MsUnderstood, addresses issues of sexual exploitation, abuse and bullying present amongst peers, which is an area which has suffered from significant neglect over the years and only now surfacing as an arena for clear intervention, protection and prosecution. The gendered power distortions which are markedly noticeable at a later stage, when recruitment occurs through the conventional ‘older boyfriend’ model, is apparent and played out in many of our cities and towns, within and without the school environment, in playgrounds, on the streets, in our city centres and parks and leisure centres.

This may not be strictly ICST but it is nonetheless an area where abuse is being carried out, and for the affected cohort of typically 11 – 15 year olds can progress into other areas of adult on minor abuse. Again, just as in the evidence accrued on ICST, this abuse is happening across ethnic and indigenous populations across the UK – and unless one is alert to the signs can be missed.

Advice and questions looking for some more answers from MsUnderstood in this troubling area when young people are directly involved in the exploitation and/or sexual assault of other young people includes:

• If a peer group is involved, and not all of them are charged, how the police and other agencies such as schools manage those who have not been charged?

• What disruption tactics are currently seen as appropriate for adults that are not transferable to children who offend – and what thinking is being done about this?

• How criminal justice agencies can begin to distinguish between leaders and followers in peer groups, and account for this when processing groups of young people through the criminal justice system?

• Whether there any evidence to suggest that young people have been ‘groomed to abuse’, by street gangs, adult organised crime groups, or influential adults/peers around them? MsUnderstood is engaged in researching what activities are best deployed to engage with those influential groups or individuals? 10

Resources to assist your response readiness

At the end of this article are a number of articles which will assist legal counsel and professionals to gather in one place some of the key findings which have emerged over the last decade in the area of tackling Child Sex Abuse, pornography, rape, paedophilia and Internal Child Sex Trafficking. Alongside this there are a number of short promotional films which can assist your training inputs as local councils, educational providers, and health care professionals to be better trained to identify patterns and interrupt this cycle of abuse.

There is a national Crimeline number for any concerns around child sexual 0800 1111 in order to alert front line officers and representatives of local councils and the Safe guarding Children boards about tell tale signs of grooming and Child Sexual Exploitation which is well worth watching and promoting around your networks http://www.cse.siyonatech.com/ The Sexual Exploitation of Children can you tell the signs? This alongside the older but still relevant Dangerous Lover Boy developed by the UKHuman Trafficking Centre when based up in Sheffield are two excellent resources to trigger discussion and further acclimatisation to/rather than a continued denial of the reality of CSE in the midst of our cities and towns. http://www.mydangerousloverboy.com/

PACE (Parents against Child Exploitation) now has an online course available to assist parents and front line workers to identify some of the first aspects of the onset of child sexual exploitation which is available through the e-Academy here https://keepthemsafe.safeguardingchildrenea.co.uk/ There is a rich source of publications, resources and advice on the Children’s Commissioner’s pages http://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/info/cseg g1 for further reading and advice.

Revd Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford – is an Applied Academic who has worked in this arena of Child Trafficking, recruitment through Gangs, Internal Trafficking, International Trafficking of Adults and Children for the last fifteen years.

She has been offering Expert Witness support in this area for the last 5 years through EXPERT WITNESS and is open to consultations on any of these areas which have been touched upon in this article.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. www.ccarht.org www.ibixinsight.com

References

1, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/31/thepsychology-of-sex-slave-rings.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A +thedailybeast%2Farticles+%28The+Daily+Beast+- +Latest+Articles%29

2, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/31/thepsychology-of-sex-slave-rings.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A +thedailybeast%2Farticles+%28The+Daily+Beast+- +Latest+Articles%29

3, Unheard Voices: The Sexual Exploitation of Muslim and Asian Women in the UK Muslim Women’s Network 2013

4, Unheard Voices: The Sexual Exploitation of Muslim and Asian Women in the UK Muslim Women’s Network 2013

5, CROP Trafficking in our Midst: Parallels between Internal and International Trafficking 2006 (now PACE)

6, ibid

7, J Caverner: Sexual Exploitation: ‘Internal Trafficking’ of Children and Young People at risk in the North East and Cumbria March 201 Barnados SECOS

8, CROP – Now transformed to PACE Parents against Child Sexual Exploitation http://www.paceuk.info/ Department of Education report: What to do if you suspect a child is being sexually Exploited 2011

9, Centre Plan 2012-13 Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

10, MSU Misunderstood until we are equal - Response to the Crown Prosecution Service consultation on draft legal guidance on child sexual abuse. Carlene Firmin MBE 2013

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